Knee Diseases

Knee Diseases


1) Those associated with trauma

A knee injury can affect the ligaments, tendons, or fluid-filled sacs surrounding your knee joint and the bones, cartilage, and ligaments that make up the joint itself. Some of the more common knee injuries include:

Anterior cruciate ligament (lob) injury:

The lob is one of the four ligaments that connect your tibia to your thigh bone. Lob injury is especially common in people who play basketball, football, or sports that require sudden movements and combat in their direction. It tears more with the rotation of the knee. Most lacerations require surgery.



Knee bones, including the kneecap (patella), can be broken during injuries such as motor vehicle accidents or falls. Although plaster treatment is possible for some simple types of kneecap fractures, most knee fractures require surgery.


Torn meniscus:

The meniscus consists of hard, rubber-thick cartilage and acts as a shock absorber between the tibia and the femur. It can tear if you suddenly bend your knee while carrying the weight. Many people in society, especially around the age of 50, have a meniscus tear. Although very few meniscus tears due to aging require surgery, surgery may be necessary, especially if you have a fit and lock in your knee.





Knee bursitis:

After some superficial injuries, fluid-filled pillows, called "Bursa," which facilitate the movement of tendons (novelties) around the joints, may be injured. In this case, water-filled swelling occurs in the front of your knee that does not pass. Although some of these swellings can heal by itself, it is necessary to protect some of them.


Patellar tendinitis:

Tendinitis is a chronic inflammation of one or more tendons. It occurs mainly as a result of difficulties and repeated overuse. Runners, skiers, cyclists, and those involved in jumping sports and activities can cause inflammation in the patella tendon, which connects the quadriceps muscle in front of the thigh to the tibia. They are usually treated without surgery.

2) Mechanical problems

Here are some examples of mechanical problems that can cause knee pain:

Free bodies inside the joint (joint mouse-Loose body):

Sometimes bone or cartilage injury or degeneration can cause a piece of bone or cartilage to rupture and fall into the joint cavity, causing it to float free. A free object does not create any problems unless it interferes with the movement of the knee joint. But if it gets between the joint and gets stuck, it can cause a lock and cartilage injury. In these cases, it is necessary to remove the free body from the inside by surgery.



Iliotibial band syndrome:


The Iliotibial band is a hard band of tissue that extends from the outside of your hip to the outside of your knee. If it continually rubs on the outside of your thigh, it causes increased pain outside of your knee with movement. Treatment usually does not require surgery. .Distance runners and cyclists are particularly susceptible to iliotibial band syndrome.

Kneecap Slip:

This occurs when the triangular bone (patella) that covers the front of your knee often slides out of your knee. In some cases, the kneecap may remain dislocated, and you may see displacement. It is more common in women. Although it does not seem to cause any distress at a young age, it can cause severe pain at an old age.


Hip or foot problems:

If you have hip or foot pain, you may change the way you walk without realizing it to protect these painful joints. But this altered gait can put more stress on your knee joint. In some cases, problems in the hip or foot can cause knee pain.


3) Types of arthritis (Calcification)

More than 100 different types of arthritis are available. The types that can affect knees the most include:



Osteoarthritis, sometimes called degenerative arthritis (calcification due to aging), is the most common type of arthritis. Excessive and low use of cartilage in your knee occurs when damaged along with use and aging.


Rheumatoid arthritis (joint rheumatism):

Joint rheumatism is a condition that can affect almost any joint in your body, including your knees. Although joint rheumatism is a chronic disease, its severity tends to vary.




This type of arthritis is more common in people who feed on protein. It's a protein metabolism disorder. Gout usually affects the big toe, while it can also occur in the knee. Gout patients must be followed.


Pseudogout(false gout):

This disease, which is usually confused with gout, is caused by calcium-containing crystals that develop in joint fluid, unlike gout. The knees are the joints most affected by the pseudogout.


Septic arthritis:


Septic arthritis is a bacterial infection of joints that can hold all joints. Your knee joint may cause swelling, increased heat, pain, and redness. Septic arthritis often occurs with fever and is often unrelated to trauma. Septic arthritis can quickly cause significant damage to knee cartilage. For this reason, it is recommended that you consult your doctor immediately if there is redness, heat increase, swelling, and pain in the knee together.


4) Other problems


Patellofemoral pain syndrome:


It is a general term for pain between the kneecap (patella) and the underlying femur (femur). It is ubiquitous in Turkish society. There is a pained character in front of the knee that is like stabbing, which begins, especially when climbing stairs and crouching on the floor. It is necessary to treat some of them with surgery, while most are treated without surgery.



Risk factors for knee diseases

Some conditions can increase the risk of knee problems:




Being overweight increases your knee joints' stress, even during everyday activities such as walking or climbing stairs. It also increases the risk of osteoarthritis(calcification) by accelerating the damage of articular cartilage.


The weakness of Muscle:


The weakness of the Muscle (quadriceps), especially in front of the thigh, can increase the risk of a knee injury. Strong muscles help balance and maintain your joints, and novelties help you achieve full range of motion.


Some sports or professions:


Some sports put more stress on your knees than others. The risk is higher, especially in struggling sports such as football and basketball. Jobs that require repetitive stress on the knees, such as construction or farming, can also increase your risk.


Former injury(Old injury):


Having a previous knee injury increases your risk of re-injuring your knee.


Can we avoid knee injuries?

Although it is not always possible to prevent knee pain, the following recommendations can help prevent injuries:

Weight control:


One of the best things you can do for your knees is weight control. Each extra weight puts additional pressure on your joints, increasing the risk of injury and osteoarthritis(calcification).


Keep your form:

Daily regular activity helps you maintain your joint health and your entire physical and mental health.


Be strong, stay flexible.

Because weak muscles are a leading cause of knee injuries, keeping your thigh and calf muscles that support your knees healthy is crucial to knee health... Balance and stability training helps the muscles around your knees work together more effectively. Try to include flexibility exercises in your exercises. Get professional support if necessary.

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