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Polyclinic for Infectious Disease

Infectious

 

The diagnosis and treatment of diseases that can occur in any part of our body, which is caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites, and some of which may be infectious.

 

 

As a result of the advances in diagnostic methods and new antimicrobial drugs, many infectious diseases can be diagnosed and treated.

 

 

The microorganisms causing these diseases can be demonstrated by culture methods, serological tests, or direct examinations.

 

 

Infectious diseases specialists plan and implement team studies to monitor and prevent hospital infections caused by highly resistant microorganisms, especially in intensive care units. The infection control committee established for this purpose carries out the duties of preventing the use of inappropriate antibiotics, continuously training personnel for infection control, and controlling the proper and effective cleaning of all hospital units.

 

 

 

Types Of Infectious Diseases:

 

  • Upper respiratory tract infections
  • Viral hepatitis
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Tuberculosis
  • Brucella (Cheese disease)
  • Typhoid
  • Gastroenteritis (Diarrhea)
  • Diseases affecting public health such as measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox
  • Chronic infections and chronic wounds
  • Travel infections and travel counseling
  • Other infectious diseases
  • Influenza infection (Influenza and similar infections)
  • Lower respiratory infections (bronchitis and pneumonia)
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Cellulite and other skin infections
  • Osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis (Bone and joint infections)
  • Brucellosis (Cheese disease)
  • Hepatitis (Hepatitis A, B, C, etc.)
  • Parasitic diseases (tapeworm, pinworm, etc.)
  • Diarrhea
  • Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases and screening after questionable intercourse
  • Travel counseling
  • Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (Skin, bone and kidney tuberculosis)
  • Referenced patients from other departments
  • Fever of unknown origin (Fever lasting more than a week)
  • Meningitis
  • Infectious diseases specialists provide consultancy on the vaccine requirements and vaccinations of adults.

 

 

 

When to Visit an Infectious Disease Specialist?

 

The most important and most significant sign of microbial diseases is fever. The department that every patient with fever should go to is the Infectious Diseases Polyclinic. The best evaluation of patients with infection can be done by the Infectious Diseases Specialist. Other complaints and conditions treated in the Infectious Diseases Polyclinic include sore throat, sneezing-runny nose, cough-sputum, burning in urine, frequent urination and urination, yellowness, carriage of hepatitis, rusty metal in the foot or any part of the body, tick bite, dog, cat, etc. bite or scratching by animals, diarrhea, parasitic diseases, some rashes and skin infections. It should be borne in mind that there will be no fever in most of these diseases and conditions.

 

 

influenza

 

The influenza virus is an infectious disease usually seen in late autumn, early winter, and early spring. It occurs within 1 to 3 days after the specified virus enters the body.

 

 

Symptoms:

 

There are symptoms such as chills, fever, dry cough, sore throat, runny nose and congestion, muscle and joint pain, headache, weakness, diarrhea.

 

 

People at Risk:

  • Those over 65 and under 2
  • People with diabetes and similar metabolic diseases
  • Chronic kidney patients
  • People with chronic respiratory disorders such as asthma
  • Immune suppressed people
  • Those who are overweight
  • Pregnant women

 

The flu can progress with complications. Complications usually occur in people at risk. The most essential difficulty is Pneumonia (Pneumonia) and central nervous system involvement.

 

Treatment  

there are drugs for the virus. These drugs are useful if they are started within the first two days. It should be used at the dose and time prescribed by the physician.

 

 

How do we protect from the flu?

The most effective method of preventing the flu is vaccination. The vaccine is prepared every year, taking into account the World Health Organization (WHO). The best time to get vaccinated is October. Mainly at risk; Vaccine is recommended in all individuals over six months.

 

 

Other Methods Of Protection;

Since the province infects the flu droplet and contact way; personal hygiene rules must be followed. It should not be in crowded places for a long time, close contact with sick people should be avoided, and hands should be washed frequently.

 

COLD ALMOND;

it is often confused with the flu. It occurs with viral factors. Adults can catch colds 2-3 times a year, and children 5-7 times a year.

 

 

Symptoms;

İt is a sore throat, runny nose, nasal congestion, and mild weakness. Fever is often absent. The disease is mild. There is no drug and vaccine for the agent.

 

PNEUMONIA

 

It is an inflammation of the lung tissue.

The most common pneumonia agent is Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, Mycoplasma pneumonia, and Chlamydia pneumonia.

Pneumonia ranks first among the causes of death related to infection.

 

 

Symptoms;

 

Fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, sweating, headache, fatigue, and sometimes abdominal pain, diarrhea can be seen.

In cases such as heart failure, diabetes, alcoholism, HIV infection, pneumonia is more common. Viral upper respiratory diseases, such as influenza, are also primary factors for pneumonia.

 

Diagnosis;

In addition to the clinical symptoms mentioned above;

  • Lung X-ray,
  • Phlegm culture and other phlegm tests,
  • It is possible to determine the agent with blood culture.

 

Treatment;

 

It is treated with antibiotics aimed at the agent.

Antibiotic treatment should be carried out in an appropriate dose and time without delay. Especially in men, quitting smoking reduces the risk of pneumonia.

The flu vaccine and the pneumococcal vaccine are effective protocols for preventing pneumonia, especially in the elderly.

 

Who Should Get The Pneumococcal Vaccine:

 

    1. For Children;
  • under two years old
  • Immune suppressed patients (such as HIV infection)
  • Those with kidney failure
  • Those who have had their spleen disrupted by functional impairment or for any reason
  • People with cerebrospinal marrow fluid leakage
  • People with diabetes
  • Pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for children with chronic liver disease.

 

  1. For adults;  
  • Over 50 years of age
  • Immune suppressed patients (such as HIV infection)
  • People with renal insufficiency
  • People who have had their spleen disrupted by functional impairment of the spleen or for any reason.
  • People with brain vertebral marrow fluid leakage

Conjugated vaccines containing 13 types of pneumococci are given first in adults. After eight weeks, the vaccine containing 23 types of pneumococci is given.

 

VIRAL HEPATITES

 

It is liver inflammation caused by hepatitis viruses.

 

HEPATITIS-A VIRUS:

 

The virus is taken by mouth after a certain incubation period; It manifests itself with weakness, nausea, vomiting, darkening in the urine, yellowing of the eyes and skin. After a certain period of time, these symptoms start to improve. The disease does not become chronic. However, as low as 1%, it may end with a liver coma and cause death. Supportive treatment is applied.

 

 

 

HEPATITIS -B VIRUS:

Blood is transmitted from mother to baby in the near term of blood products, sexual contact, and birth. Injecting drug users related to everyday injector use are also at risk. It becomes chronic (prolonged) in its approximate rate. It can cause death with a liver coma in 1-2%.

Clinical symptoms are similar to Hepatitis-A. For chronic patients, disease progression can be stopped by using virus-acting drugs. If it is not treated, it can cause cirrhosis and liver cancer. With treatment, the virus cannot be removed from the body, but it can be suppressed.

For protection; There are hepatitis-B serum and vaccine. If there is a hepatitis-B carrier in pregnant women; Serum and vaccination are given to the baby after birth.

 

 

In our country, routine vaccination is done in the newborn.

 

HEPATITIS-C VIRUS:

 

Clinical symptoms are similar to other viruses. It mostly progresses without jaundice. It is mainly transmitted by blood and blood products. Injecting drug users related to everyday injector use are also at risk.

Transmission by sexual contact is rare. It becomes chronic, with 85%. It can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.

It can be treated with 80-90% of antiviral drugs recently.

There is no vaccine.

 

HEPATITIS -D VIRUS:

It is a missing virus. It cannot make disease on its own. For hepatitis; It needs the hepatitis-B virus. It becomes chronic and causes cirrhosis and liver cancer. It is difficult to treat.

It is possible to protect against the hepatitis-D virus with the hepatitis-B vaccine.

 

 

HEPATITIS -E VIRUS:

It is transmitted by mouth. Its symptoms are similar to hepatitis-A. Not chronic. If hepatitis-E infection occurs in the mother in the last three same pregnancies; It causes death due to liver coma in 25%.

 

 

HIV- AIDS:

HIV: It is a human immunodeficiency virus.

AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

HIV infection is one of the most critical health problems in developing countries. More than 6 million people are thought to have been infected by HIV so far.

The virus mainly infects and destroys white blood cells called T-Helper and Monocyte. After the virus enters the body, it shows the first disease symptoms: fever, sore throat, rash, white spheres, diarrhea, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Then lymph node swelling, low platelets occur. Weight loss is frequently seen. AIDS develops within ten years in patients who are not diagnosed and treated.

In some rare cases, even if the person receives the virus, the virus is excreted from the body without causing any harm. When the AIDS table develops, the person's immune system completely collapses. A variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites do not cause disease in Normal individuals to lead to infection in these patients.

Bacterial pneumonia is ten times more common in HIV positive patients than in negative patients. Tuberculosis significantly increased in HIV-positive patients. Rare malignancies in normal individuals can frequently occur in HIV positive patients.

 

 

Who is at Risk?

 

The primary contamination, blood, and blood products are sexual contact and transition from HIV positive mother to baby. Since blood and blood products have been examined in terms of HIV for a long time, this way, the growth has decreased. Prostitutes, injecting drug users (via a common injector), homosexuals are at risk.

The transition rate from pregnant mother to baby is between -60%. If pregnancy is diagnosed and treatment is started, this rate may be as low as 2%. HIV can be transmitted through breast milk.

 

Diagnosis;

THE first ELISA test is done in the blood. If this test is positive, verification is done with the Western Blot test. Since the ELISA test has false positivity, the Western Blot verification test must be carried out.

 

Treatment;

Various antiviral agents effective against HIV have been used up to now. At least three kinds of drugs are used to prevent the virus from developing resistance in the treatment. A multidisciplinary approach is required during follow-up and treatment.

If HIV patients are properly followed-up and treated, they can continue their lives, just like other chronic patients.

Today, there is no protective vaccine against the disease.

 

 

MENINGITIS:

It is an inflammation of the lining of the brain. Headache is the earliest symptom of the disease. Then consciousness closes slowly. The patient goes into a coma. There is mostly fever. There may be severe vomiting.

Among its factors are various bacteria and viruses, parasites. The most important factors among the bacteria are; Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitides, Haemophilus influenza.

Over 50 years old; It begins to appear in meningitis that Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for.

 

 

Due to the vaccinations, Haemophilus influenza meningitis has been rare in recent years.

Neisseria meningitides meningitis is contagious. People who go to places where this is frequently seen (Hajj, Umrah, etc.) are vaccinated.

 

People with severe headache and fever symptoms should start applying to health institutions as soon as possible.

 

Especially if bacterial meningitis is not treated with early diagnosis, it will result in death.

 

Diagnosis;

It is taken by examining the cerebrospinal fluid and examining it. Early and effective antibiotic treatment is life-saving.

Viral causative meningitis is milder. There are no specific treatments except a few.

Tuberkulose bacillus is among the factors of meningitis. It is mostly chronic meningitis. If it is not diagnosed and treated early, neurological sugars remain and result in death.

 

URINE PATH INFECTIONS

 

Urinary tract infections are divided into two as upper and lower: Upper urinary tract infection is called Pyelonephritis (kidney inflammation), lower urinary tract infection is Cystitis (bladder inflammation);

 

  • Symptoms of Pyelonephritis (inflammation of the kidney); fever, flank pain, difficult and frequent urination,
  • Cystitis (inflammation of the bladder); There is no fever, there are signs of demanding and frequent urination.

 

Escherichia coli bacteria are the most common urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infections; It is seen in 1-2% of newborns, 5% of girls, and 0.5% of boys. It is more common in women than in men. In women, at least one urinary tract infection occurs every year.

 

Diagnosis;

with the clinical symptoms listed above; The presence of leukocytes in the urine (pyuria) and reproduction in the urine culture. The result of an antibiogram is given by giving effective antibiotics. Patients are recommended to drink plenty of water and painkillers.

 

 

Asymptomatic bacteriuria;

It is the presence of bacteria in the urine without any symptoms. No antibiotic treatment is required, except as indicated below.

  • Pregnancy
  • Kidney transplant patients

 

 

Protection;

 

 In recent studies, blueberry products have been shown to be effective in preventing urinary tract infections. However, in some studies, the subject has been controversial.

Urinary tract infection was significantly prevented in women before menopause by administering Lactobacillus crispatus bacteria via vaginal route.

 

BRUCELLOSIS (CHEESE DISEASE)

 

It is an infectious disease caused by brucella bacteria. This bacteria causes disease in animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, goats. The condition is transmitted to humans by contact with sick animals and their tissues, eating unpasteurized milk and dairy products. Veterinarians, laboratory workers, those engaged in animal husbandry are at risk. Fever, sweating, muscle pain, joint pain, weight loss, ligament pain, and fatigue are the most common symptoms.

 

Liver and spleen enlargement, enlarged lymph nodes. It can cause complications such as bone inflammation, testicular inflammation, heart valve inflammation, meningitis.

 

Diagnosis;

 

In addition to the above symptoms, blood culture and some serological tests are put.

 

Treatment;

 

This bacterium is made with at least two antibiotics effective for at least two weeks. The control of the disease in humans is possible only by preventing the disease in animals. Vaccination is carried out in animals.

 

 

 

FIRE WİTHOUT UNKNOWN RESOURCE

We can describe the fever of which the classical cause is unknown as follows; It is a fever that exceeds 38.3 degrees in various measurements, lasts more than three weeks, and has no reason with a week of examination. Infections, malignancies, connective tissue diseases are the most common causes of fever of unknown origin.

Infections are responsible for -58 of fever factors of unknown cause.

 

Patients over 65 years of age decrease the probability of infection and fall to the 2nd or 3rd place among the causes of fever of unknown origin. Connective tissue diseases constitute 30% of the madness of unknown origin and tumors in patients over 65. Mostly in 30% of the youth, the cause of fever cannot be found despite all kinds of research.

 

Abseler, inflammation of the heart valve, tuberculosis, complicated urinary tract infections are the most common infectious conditions.

The most common malignancies causing fever of unknown origin are hematological cancers, colon cancers, and central nervous system cancers. After various examinations, approximately 70% of patients can be diagnosed. In the rest, no diagnosis can be achieved.

  Medical Staff
Physician Songül ÖZER
Enfeksiyon Hastalıkları Uzmanı

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