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Epilepsy

Epilepsy A kind of electrical leakage or short circuit caused by the brain, involuntary movement, sensations or loss of consciousness that occurs in the body. 

What are the causes of epilepsy?

Almost half of the epilepsy has no obvious and obvious reason. Meningitis, encephalitis, cerebral vascular occlusion, cerebral hemorrhage, use of certain drugs, substance dependencies and interruption of substances, and some disorders in the blood during neonatal infancy may cause epilepsy attacks. Generally, in spite of all investigations in young age epilepsies, there is no clear and obvious reason in the brain. 

What is the Importance of Genetic Factors for Epilepsy?

There is a genetic tendency in epilepsy. Fervent childhood transfers also show a genetic tendency. Although some genes have been identified for some epilepsies , it does not directly pass from parents to children. However, there is a tendency for children to appear in the family. Genetic codes have been identified in some developmental and learning disorders that occur in childhood. Practically, genetic research is not applied to diagnose epilepsy. However, if there are other developmental disorders with epilepsy, genetic investigations can be performed in order to guide the treatment.

How to Diagnose Epilepsy?

Epilepsy The key to diagnosis is to learn what the person is experiencing and how the attacks are. Especially when it is a mobile phone that records almost everyone else today, trying to display attacks can help to diagnose. After general physical and neurological examination for epilepsy, the first laboratory examination tool is electroencephalography (EEG). EEG is the recording of electric waves from the scalp. Normal EEG results do not indicate no epilepsy and EEG does not always mean epilepsy. Since EEG is a short-term, dynamic examination, there may be no abnormality during the shot, which may not be reflected in the brain record during the procedure.

The other diagnostic method is brain imaging. These may be in the form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). These tests can be done to determine if there is something structural under the epilepsy (vascular occlusion, brain infection etc. Sometimes, brain imaging examinations such as MR and PET may be performed as a guideline in epilepsy surgery.

How is the treatment done?

The most important step in the treatment of epilepsy is accurate and accurate diagnosis. After diagnosis, the drug can be selected according to the type of seizure. In other words, the same drug is not selected for each seizure type. Depending on the age, sex, reproductive age, or other disease conditions, the appropriate medication is selected. One of the most important principles in the treatment of epilepsy is the den single drug top dose en approach. In this way, it is possible to get rid of the multiple side effects of drugs and many people who have weak seizure control can successfully control their seizures. In order to protect patients from side effects, blood levels may be required to measure drug blood levels and occasionally for possible side effects.

Part of the treatment in patients with epilepsy is a special diet program called ketogenic diet, which is difficult to apply in patients but with good treatment effect and high success rate. 

Another treatment option is the surgical treatment of epilepsy in appropriate patients . Especially in patients with resistant seizures or signs of mesial temporal sclerosis may provide a good treatment option in patients with MR.

Especially in some childhood seizures, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) called the application of the battery, often can control the seizures.

These treatments are chosen according to the type of seizure, the response to the medications, the age of the patient and the underlying causes. In other words, the treatment of epilepsy is completely individual and personal treatment.

What should be done during the seizure?

  • Keep calm and turn the patient's head and body. Lay him on the side.
  • Do not shove or open anything in the mouth. Large seizures are very frightening for people who are not accustomed. But the important thing is the safety of the patient and you must be calm.
  • The longest seizure lasts 1 minute, but it is too long for the witnesses to panic and urgency. Keep calm and the most important thing for the patient is to provide clearance of the airway and to ensure that his or her respiratory secretions are not compressed.
  • In large seizures, bruising and respiratory entrapment occur and are frightening. But even if you try to open your mouth, it won't work. For this reason, the best thing is to turn the patient to the side and the lower part of the face, and to ensure that the saliva and secretions in the mouth do not flow to the trachea, but to the down / out. 
  • Prevent injury during seizure (prevent the head from falling off the bed). 
  • (Remove cutter and wound objects around it). Loosen collar and tight clothing, if any.  
  • If you are making unconscious movements, block them with unstable movements. Observe what you are doing at the time of the seizure and tell them about your doctor (if you are in a frequent situation and you are not in a panic state, take a video image after securing the patient, especially for patients with diagnostic complexity).
  • Wait until the seizure is finished and don't leave it until the patient comes back. 
  • If possible, inform your doctor if possible.

What Patients Should Pay Attention To?

  • Epilepsy does not like disorder. He should not sleep excessively, at least 7-8 hours a day and should sleep regularly. 
  • Stimulant drinks such as tea, coffee and cola should be consumed normally. 
  • Alcoholic beverages should not be used because they can cause seizures and change the effects of epilepsy medications. 
  • Long-term and close television (at least 3m should be) should not be watched and more computers should not be used. 
  • In these periods , room light should be on for those with light sensitive epilepsy . High places (balconies, roofs, etc.) should not be on the edge and should be avoided when there is a seizure risk. 
  • Motor vehicles must not be used until the seizures are controlled. 
  • People with epilepsy can get married and have children. If the epileptic person to marry his wife should know the disease. Women should consult with their doctor before they become pregnant.
  • Drugs should be used regularly and necessarily as recommended. The number of seizures and days and hours should be recorded. Although the seizures are controlled, they should be checked at regular intervals. 
  • Persons with epilepsy may enter the sea with the condition of being someone who knows how to swim next to the sea and the depth should not exceed the knee length.
  • Epilepsy may partially affect your life, but it does not prevent you from having a normal, active life. Except for some professional occupations, there is nothing you cannot do.

 

 

Prof. A. Oğuz TANRIDAĞ, MD
Neurologist
Prof. Sultan TARLACI
Neurologist
Assoc. Prof. Barış METİN, MD
Neurologist
Physician Celal ŞALÇİNİ
Neurologist

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