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Vocal Health

Taking Care of Your Voice

 

How Does Sound Occur? / How Does A Human Voice Form?

 

Vibration motion is required for a sound to form. Vibration is the movement of an object back and forth. For the human voice to be formed, the vibration must be formed.

 

When breathing, air from the lungs vibrates to the vocal cords in our larynx, creating the raw sound. Vocal cords vibrate 180-210 times per second in men, 210-240 in women, and 400 times in infants. This raw sound forms in the throat, nose, and mouth cavities, creating the tone of voice that is unique to every human being. This original sound then becomes the voice of speech as our intra-oral organs (tongue, tooth, lip, palate, soft palate) enter into various positions.

 

The human voice is composed of three stages. These are respiration, the stage of respiration; phonation, the stage of vibration of the vocal cords, and resonance, the stage of the formation of the raw sound that is formed into a shape and the tone of the voice that is unique to every human being. When articulation is added to this stage, that is, the production phase of speech sounds, speech is realized.

 

Our sound system consists of our lungs, windpipe, larynx, nose, and mouth. To create a healthy sound, all organs in the sound system must work healthily and harmoniously. All behaviors aimed at protecting the sound system are called Sound hygiene.

 

 

 

What Is Voice Therapy?

 

Voice therapy consists of the following topics : (1) voice hygiene describes how to care for the vocal cords by keeping the vocal cords moist and away from irritants. (2) sound production works include the work of producing the best sound without damaging the vocal cords. The vocal cords are muscles. Like other muscles in our body, the vocal cords are strengthened by the right exercises and damaged by the wrong exercises. It involves having exercises on the vocal cords to strengthen them against trauma.

 

The following are the substances that must be considered in sound hygiene. We call all behaviors aimed at protecting the sound system “sound hygiene.”

 

  • It is important to breathe correctly so that the vocal cords vibrate without damage. The right breath to speak is the diaphragm breath. To use the diaphragm breath, it is important to stand up correctly.

 

  • Frequent and severe throat clearing, frequent and severe coughing should be avoided as this behavior will irritate the vocal cords.

 

  • The hydration of vocal cords is important. Consume at least two liters of decaffeinated and non-Teine fluids a day. Caffeine, (tea, coffee, cola), alcohol, and dairy products cause damage to the vocal cords as they dry out the water in the cell and cause sputum increase.
  • Do not speak, shout or scream with extreme violence, as talking loudly will irritate the vocal cords. Instead of sending your voice away, you go there.

 

  • Do not talk in dry, dusty, smoky, air-conditioned, and noisy places.

 

 

  • Do not smoke because smoking irritates the vocal cords.

 

  • If you have reflux, treat it. The beginning of the esophagus is located just behind our vocal cords. Treatment of reflux is important as stomach acid, which goes up through the esophagus, will irritate our vocal cords.
  • Use diuretic drugs under doctor's supervision; these drugs can cause dry vocal cords.

 

  • Since many herbal teas also have a diuretic effect, for limited herbal teas.

 

 

  • If you have allergies, sinusitis, pharyngitis, otitis, nasal congestion, and lung disease, you should have it treated. All kinds of diseases and problems in your body will negatively affect your voice, so solve all your health problems.
  • Take care to get enough sleep every day.

 

  • Pay attention to the head and neck position when talking on the phone.

 

  • Vocal cords are muscles. For these muscles to work strong and regularly, do the voice exercises recommended by the “expert language and speech therapist” regularly.

 

 

  • If there is a hearing loss, be sure to have it treated. Because of hearing loss, you feel the need to constantly shout and speak.

 

  • Before using hormone-acting drugs, always consult an ENT physician. While some hormones can cause permanent thickening in your voice, birth control pills also narrow the dynamic range of your voice.

 

Sound hygiene: It explains how to care for the vocal cords by keeping the vocal cords moist and away from irritants. Moisturizing treatment is used in almost all sound diseases. The humidified vocal cords vibrate with minimal effort or are forced by the lungs. Also, moisture protects the vocal cords from damage that may occur and prevents the vocal cords from being damaged again. However, moisturizing treatment may be a contraindication for some patients due to the drugs they take. Keeping fluid in the body patients with heart or kidney disease should not consume large amounts of fluid in moisturizing treatment. Again, it should not be found in humid environments in patients with mold allergies. Moisturizing treatment generally involves two or three types of methods. One of these methods is to hydrate cells from the inside by taking plenty of fluids and avoid substances that dry out the body's internal structure, such as caffeine, alcohol, and, if not medically necessary, diuretic drugs. The second method is to moisten the surface of the vocal cords externally with water vapor or steam under the control of the doctor. The third method involves the intake of drugs that make body secretions fluid under the control of the doctor.

 

Treatment of reflux is also an important stage of sound hygiene. It is understood that many sound diseases occur as a result of the irritation of stomach acid up to the throat. The beginning of the esophagus is located just behind our vocal cords. Treatment of reflux is important, as stomach acid going up the esophagus will irritate our vocal cords. Treatment of reflux occurs in three ways. The first method is the most preferred behavioral method. This method involves avoiding spicy foods, drinks that contain alcohol and caffeine, and fatty foods. Patients sleep with their heads up to prevent stomach contents from coming up and irritating the larynx and airway. They should stop eating at least 4 hours before bed. If the patient has a weight problem, he or she may be asked to lose weight. The second method is Doctor-controlled drug therapy. The third method is a surgical method called fundoplication, which is applied for conditions of reflux that do not heal with behavioral or medication.

 

What Are Voice Disorders?

 

Voice disorders consist of four different causes: organic, psychological, neurogenic, functional. Nodules, polyps, Reinke's edema, Nov disfoni voltage of, spasmodic dysphonia, vocal cord paralysis, cysts, hemorrhage, sulcus vocalis, springiness, granulomas, vocal cord paradoxical movement, puberfoni or Parkinson's, also, such as some neurogenic voice disorders are seen in many diseases that accompany.

 

The quality of the sound we produce is closely related to how comfortable (or exertive) the vocal cords move. If the vocal cords vibrate synchronously, the sound sounds good. But if it comes together hard, forced, the sound that comes out is not pleasant, but the vocal cords can be permanently damaged.

 

If you have been experiencing hoarseness, changes in voice, or discomfort in the larynx for over 10 days without a reason such as a cold or allergy, you should contact an ear-nose-throat physician as soon as possible. Your doctor will determine whether you need the professional help of a language and speech therapist to solve the problem.

 

Nodules and polyps

 

Definition

Nodules and polyps are the most common, benign formations that occur in the middle part of the vocal cords. Nodules are Calluses formed on the vocal cords. Polyps are fluid-filled formations relative to nodules. It can be fed by invisible blood vessels. Muffled voice, forced voice, and quick fatigue are typical symptoms of both nodule and polyps.

 

 

 

 

The cause

Both nodules and polyps are caused by vocal cord trauma that occurs during speech or singing. Factors such as smoking and alcohol use, caffeine, allergies, reflux, exposure to harmful chemicals are also effective in the formation of nodules and polyps.

 

Treatment

Sound therapy is the first stage of treatment. In addition to vocal hygiene recommendations, methods of resonant voice therapy and vocal function exercises are used.

 

Cysts

Definition

The cysts that occur in the vocal cords are the same as cysts that occur anywhere in the body. They are in sacs filled with liquid and wrapped by the skin. One-sided cysts are most visible in the middle region of the vocal cords that vibrate.

 

The cause

The true cause of vocal cord cysts is not fully known. It is thought to be effective in the formation of sound usage due to its formation at the midpoint of the vocal cords which are most vibrated.

 

Treatment

Treatment of cysts is a surgical method. After the surgery, voice therapy is applied.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reinke Edema (Polypoid Degeneration)

Definition

Reinke edema is a swelling of the vocal cords like balloons. It is a sign of speech from the extremely low pitch (especially in women).

 

The cause

 

Smoking, chemicals, excessive alcohol, reflux is seen in people who use more than their voice.

 

Treatment

Treatment is performed according to the patient's needs and the degree of the problem. If the swelling is high enough to block the airway, then surgery is required. If the swelling is mild, then sound therapy is preferred first.

 

Novartis Dysphonia

Definition

Muscle tension dysphonia(MSD), is the feeling of fatigue and discomfort in the voice as a result of overuse of one or more novices. Although MSD often occurs alone, it can also accompany organic problems in some cases.

 

The cause

The cause of muscle tension dysphonia(MSD) is an excessive activity in the larynx muscles. Excessive activity is often not due to an organic cause and can be replaced by voice therapy.

 

 

 

 

Treatment

Voice therapy is the preferred treatment method for MSD. Different therapy approaches can be used. Larynx massage and soft phonation are effective methods.

 

Püberfoni

 

Definition

After puberty, it is a condition of insisting on using the voice of adolescence without any organic reason. It is more common in men who use a high-pitched voice. Sometimes it is also seen in women who use their voice from the high pitch, such as a child's voice.

 

The cause

 

There is no systematic study of the cause of püberfonia.

 

Treatment

It is possible to cure with voice therapy. The most typical approach is a larynx massage, but the important point is to accept the patient's new adult voice and use it.

Paradoxical Vocal Cord Movement

Definition

Paradoxical vocal cord movement (PVCM) is not a vocal disorder, but it can be accompanied by vocal disorders. PVCM causes breathing difficulties as the vocal cords tend to decelerate during breathing and/or exhaling, thus preventing air from entering and exiting the lower respiratory system comfortably. Patients panic because of breathing difficulties and sometimes are admitted to the hospital. Path problems are mostly behavioral and can be easily treated with breathing exercises.

 

 

The cause

Although there is no known cause of PVCM, exercise can trigger causes such as reflux, cough, and/or panic.

Treatment

In addition to medication for physiological “triggers”, behavioral therapy by a language and speech therapist, and in some cases psychological or psychiatric support therapy for anxiety, are effective treatments for PVCM.

 

Sulcus Vocalis

Definition

The vocal cord sulcus is the grooves seen throughout the vocal cord tissue. It causes serious voice impairment. General symptoms of sulcus are weakness, fatigue, and high-pitched voice.

 

The cause

Controversy over the cause of vocal cord sulcus continues. In some cases, the cyst is removed. In other cases, it can be congenital.

 

Treatment

Although voice therapy may help eliminate some of the symptoms, it does not eliminate them. Surgery is often required.

 

 

Granulomas

 

Definition

Granulomas are veined tissues that form in the larynx. They mostly occur in the posterior part of the vocal cords.

 

 

The cause

Many granulomas are caused by stomach acid irritating the back of the larynx. Besides, granulomas can also occur due to diseases such as tuberculosis or HIV+. Low pitch sound production and excessive use of the back of the larynx are also thought to cause granuloma.

 

Treatment

The most important part of treatment is the treatment of reflux. If the lesion is too large and there is no response to medication, micro-surgery or voice therapy may be performed together, or both.

 

Vocal Cord Paralysis

 

Definition

 

Vocal cord paralysis; vocal cords the vocal cords to the limit, and the study of one or more weak being unable to move or fails to return to normal condition. In many cases, the vocal cords cannot be closed either fully or at all. At the same time, the vocal cords do not extend as needed to produce fine-toned sounds. Rarely, the vocal cords do not open. In this case, the patient's breathing becomes difficult.

The cause

 

The cause of vocal cord palsy could depend on many things. The most common cause is viral: the patient suffers from influenza or upper respiratory infection and, consequently, laryngitis and there is no return. Other causes include surgery (chest, neck, or shoulder), heart problems, and rarely tumors or brain damage.

 

 

 

Treatment

Voice therapy is performed to improve the closing quality of the vocal cords. In some cases, surgery is performed to allow the vocal cords to close during speech and swallowing.

 

Spasmodic Dysphonia

 

Definition

In spasmodic dysphonia (SD), the vocal cords contract abruptly at different times during the speech, causing the sound to be abruptly interrupted. While the sound is affected in SD, vegetative functions such as coughing, laughing and even singing can be normal

 

The cause

 

It is not known what caused the SD. In some cases, however, the cause is linked to a minor level of unusual nerve or brain that cannot be linked to any disorder. This unusual situation does not cause any other problems other than speech. It is thought to form as a response to the stimulation of vocal cords nerves for AD-SD.

 

Treatment

 

The main treatment method for SD is the injection of “botulinum toxin” (Botox) into a small amount of single or double vocal cords or muscles that are close to them. With these injections, the treated vocal cord is weakened and reduced in contractions.

 

 

Hemorrhage

 

Definition

The vocal cords are bleeding inside the tissue. Extensive bleeding causes blood to fill the inside of the tissue.

 

The cause

One of the reasons for hemorrhaging in vocal cords is the use of excessively loud sounds (e.g. shouting). Other conditions of poor use of sound may cause vascular cracking in the vocal cords.

 

Treatment

The treatment of vocal cord hemorrhage varies according to the cause of its occurrence. If the bleeding is new and widespread, medication can be administered for a few days or a few weeks for complete sound rest or blood absorption. Surgical intervention is performed if necessary.

Yayınlama Tarihi:
30 Ocak 2021
Güncelleme Tarihi:
03 Eylül 2021