Depression, like any other illnesses such as heart conditions or gastric ulcer, is a medical condition. Clinical depression, like any other illnesses, consists of symptoms that are generally similar but also changing from person to person. Constantly feeling upset or useless. Emotions of despair, helplessness, guilt or insignificance. Substance abuse, exhaustion or reduced interest in daily routine, reduced sexual drive, deterioration of sleeping patterns and appetite. Bad temper, crying, anxiety and fears. Decreases concentration, forgetfulness, difficulty in making decisions, thoughts of suicide, planning or attempting suicide. Long term somatic complaints, pains which do not respond to treatment.
In some people, ‘compliance disorder’ may develop as a reaction to stressful situations. Although it can be seen in all age groups, this illness is quite common among adolescents. When the individual faces a new situation or a stress factor (Ex: physical diseases, job loss, divorce, poverty), he/she has troubles beyond the expectations, his/her professional and family life, -and school life if he/she is a student- are affected negatively.
Emotive tensions may affect the whole life. Studies indicate that stress has an important role in the development and progression of many illnesses and from inner problems to the ruining of body’s immunity system, stress deeply affects human health. Stress ruins whole balance of a person. Individuals can overcome stress by learning exercises that relax the body and mind as well as relieving tense areas.
Some victims of an earthquake may be emotionally affect although there are no physical injuries. There might be intense and deep feelings of fear, worrying, regret, hate, pessimism, panic and shame. These feelings may change frequently The individual feel more angry when compared to the past. There will be ups and downs regarding some feelings. The individual will be worried, angry and pessimistic.
With its recently coined name, ‘Bipolar Disorder’ is a kind of mental disorder which includes depressive (sorrow, suffering, reluctance, worrying, anxiety, fear, pessimism, misery) and manic (extreme joy, courage, being energetic, talking too much, spending too much money, excessive happiness) periods.
It is the deterioration of the ability to test reality due to schism, separation and fragmentation in the psychological life. There are four types of schizophrenia. Treatment methods vary according to the subcategories. Recent studies support the notion that schizophrenia is a brain disease. Therapy methods are focused on proper medication and preventing the genes in brain from producing faulty protein.
It is an illness which starts during the adolescent period and it is observed evenly among men and women. It is mainly characterized by shyness. Some of the symptoms are fear, excitement, athetosis, blushing, nausea, vomiting, urge to urinate. They are inclined to avoid eye contact, have lack of self-confidence and to see themselves unskillful and inadequate. Individuals are afraid of making mistakes and being embarrassed.
There are several types of this illness, which is also known as psychotic disorder. It is accompanied by thought disorders such as skepticism, eroticism, deliria or jealousy. Individual’s delusional thoughts affects his/her life and he/she cannot distinguish friend from enemy He/she loses his/her social role and experience compliance problems. In the brain of these individuals, chemical balance of the areas responsible from doubt, jealousy and anger starts to deteriorate.
Psychological and physical addictions in the use of alcohol, cigarette and other substances are becoming widespread in our society. Addiction on pleasure-inducing substances, which especially affects young people, requires special diagnostic and treatment methods. Considering the fact that these individuals’ brain are damaged after a course of time, the treatment must be planned from biological, psychological and social perspectives. If pleasure-inducing substance has become the sole purpose and expectation in his/her life, there is an urgent need for a therapy. If the bodily harms start to appear, we are facing with a dangerous level of use. It requires a proper treatment to be conducted with the cooperation of psychologists and psychiatrists under the addiction unit.
If an individual experience intense tremors, shivering, shortness of breath, vertigo, fear of dying or losing control, it indicates to ‘Panic Disorder’ which is a psychiatric illness. The individual often goes to emergency service and has him/her checked with the fear of having cardiac arrest, brain hemorrhage, stroke. Therefore, he/she tries to avoid being alone, going crowded places, driving cars because of the same fears and thus, it might deteriorate his/her living qualities.
It is also called ‘Atypical’ or ‘Hidden Depression’. The individual’s depressive mental state is not in the foreground. The individual apply to a doctor with bodily symptoms, pain, asthma attack, gastrointestinal and cardiac conditions, vertigo, derangement, nausea, vomiting, feeling numb, weakness, fears, obsessions, forgetfulness, use of alcohol and cigarette, anger. Masked depression is more commonly observed among children, adolescents and old people. The stress factor is especially important.
A stressful marriage affects both sides negatively. It causes unwanted conditions such as pain, suffering, worrying, high amount of tension and depression. If it continues for a certain period of time, it has negative effects on physical health as well. The existence of major conflicts has tremendous effects on family. Children who grew up in an environment where their parent’s marriage contains a lot of conflicts, have a lot more problems than other children. If the necessary precautions are not taken when the marriage reaches an impasse, it might conclude with a divorce. If the couple cannot work it out, there is a need for professional help and marriage counselling.
It is an illness which includes unwanted thoughts, wishes and actions. The individual is aware of its nonsense, but cannot overcome this thoughts and feelings. He/she is in constant struggle with parasitic thoughts. He/she is always worried and troubled. Several symptoms of this illness are suspicion, sickness, cleaning, metaphysical obsessions and behavioral disorders. The life becomes unbearable, with feelings of uncertainty and the expectation that a bad things are going to happen. This situation, which cannot be controlled by the individual, requires a special treatment and a strict therapy discipline brings good results.
Types of personality disorders are; Paranoid Personality Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorder, Schizotypal Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder, Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder, Sadomasochistic personality disorder. Personality disorders can be observed in adolescence or earlier periods. Personality disorders strongly deteriorate the individual’s compliance to society. It causes significant problems in interpersonal relations and job life.
Although the major sleeping disorders are insomnia, snoring and sleep apnea, there is a wide range of disturbances including limb movement disorder, restless leg syndrome, narcolepsy, cataplexy, sleep terror, teeth grinding and sleep wetting.
Although the major sleeping disorders are insomnia, snoring and sleep apnea, there are numerous neurological disorders.
Eating disorders include two clinical charts. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa Anorexia Nervosa is the excessive loss of weight as a result of the fact that the individual’s perception towards his/her own body deteriorates and subsequently he/she thinks that he/she is overweight and therefore refuses to eat properly. It is one of the rare disorders that may result in death. Bulimia Nervosa is an eating disorder including both excessive eating and strict diet periods. Bulimia Nervosa starts at adolescence and early adult periods. 90% of bulimia patients are women. Because of the problems that bulimia patients encounter in urge control, many other accompanying clinical problems are examined as well. Substance abuse, emotional imbalance and suicide attempts are frequently observed in the medical history of these patients.
According to the psychiatric classification system, DSM IV, concepts such as pedophilia, exhibitionism, fetishism, fretteurism, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, transvestic fetishism, voyeurism, transexuality are examined under the title of paraphilia. According to DSM IV, gender clinical disorder includes people who are “constantly uncomfortable about their gender identities, roles and orientation” and who don’t prefer these. Homosexual individuals who are not uncomfortable about their gender identities are not included to this classification.
It includes sexual life disorders such as excessive masturbation, reduced sexual drive and sexual stimulation, not being able to have orgasm, premature ejaculation, unpleasant feelings, painful sexuality.
Symptoms are restlessness, discomfort, boredom, anxiety, irritability, anger, impatience, tension, loud speaking, being be sensitive to noise. People with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder tend to always expect disaster and can’t stop worrying. Somatic symptoms are numbness, tingling, pain, palpitation, deep breathing, chills, flushing, chest pain, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, frequent urination, dizziness, insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite.